Matthew J Goodwin Rutherford College, University of Kent This new series encompasses academic studies within the broad fields of 'extremism' and 'democracy'. These topics have traditionally been considered largely in isolation by academics. A key focus of the series, therefore, is the inter- relation between extremism and democracy. Works will seek to answer questions such as to what extent extremist groups pose a major threat to democratic parties, or how can democracy respond to extremism without undermining its own democratic credentials?
Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding. And the means by which they carry the duties into practice is singleness.
Some are born with the knowledge of those duties; some know them by study; and some acquire the knowledge after a painful feeling of their ignorance. But the knowledge being possessed, it comes to the same thing.
Some practice them with a natural ease; some from a desire for their advantages; and some by strenuous effort. But the achievement being made, it comes to the same thing. Confucius If a Western person is not aware of the very different relational presumptions built into Confucian ideas of reciprocal duty, he or she is likely to presume that the independent pursuit of needs and wants is central to involvement in such relationships.
Robert Westwood does this when he sums up the Confucian position from a Western perspective. He assumes that all individuals are 'free actors' who 'lose freedom' when they are required to accept super-ordinate or subordinate hierarchical status.
It is this that allows him to speak about relative 'power' in hierarchical, interdependent relationships: Challenges to authority and the 'natural' order are not countenanced.
This is encapsulated in the Confucian precepts of the so-called 'Five Cardinal Relationships' or wu lun, which delineate a hierarchical power structure over key societal relationships. The wu lun are dyadic sets of unequal, mostly hierarchical relationships between emperor - minister, father - son, husband - wife, older brother - younger brother, friend - friend.
|Extremism and Democracy - Routledge||Quotes[ edit ] Independencethe freedom of a self-governing nationis in my estimation the highest political good, for which any disadvantage, if need be, and any sacrifice are a cheap price. Values exist in a transcendental realm, beyond space and time.|
|Enoch Powell - Wikiquote||Ayn Rand Man is not the best of things in the universe. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library, p.|
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Although the power structure is differentiated and unequal except for the lattermutual obligations and reciprocities are inherent in the relationships. The person in the dominant position expects and receives obedience, deference and compliance, but in return should respect the dignity of the lower party and provide appropriate care and concern.
Chinese often view themselves interdependent with the surrounding social context, and it is the 'self in relation to other' that becomes the focal individual experience. This view of an interdependent self is in sharp contrast to the Western view of an independent self. The latter sees each human being as an independent, self-contained, autonomous entity who a comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes e.
This divergent view of self has implications for a variety of basic psychological processes e. It is very easy for a researcher or commentator to apply his or her own understandings of the nature of relationships to those observed in other communities.
Westwood does this when he assumes that hierarchical relationships must involve dominance and subservience, relative power and powerlessness. These are features of relationships between individuals who define themselves as 'free actors'.
They see relationships of dependence in terms of costs and benefits and degrees of loss of independence The independent self is quintessentially Western. The interdependent self, in one guise or another, is found in communities where individuals know who they are through the forms of relationship they recognize between themselves and other members of the community.
They perceive rights and responsibilities as qualities of the interactants rather than inhering in the 'objects' of interaction as rules of acquisition.
In such communities the rights and obligations of individuals in exchange relationships remain with the interactants rather than being attached to the objects of exchange. So, the other party in an exchange is the focus, rather than the needs and wants of the interactants.
In one case, the process of exchange or interaction tends to emphasize the separate identities and, therefore, motivations of the exchangers leading to a stress on independence.
In the other, it tends to emphasize their relatedness and reciprocal responsibilities stressing interdependence. The qualities of the relationships invoked in exchange in the two orientations are very different. Such interactional orientations tend not only to 'flavor' recognized relationships between people but permeate relationships connecting both elements within categories and categories themselves throughout the primary ideological frames see 'Primary ideology' - below of the communities.In a colourful literary style, the authors paint precise Revolt on the Right offers a thorough analysis of a movement that has until now received only limited scholarly This is all the more regrettable that the very strong analysis and nuanced understanding of the development of UKIP’s strategy since its foundation in the first two.
The Brit Establishment have killed for less than the price of what it will cost them to lose Scotland.
If Scotland was to get a positive result on another Indy ref then the intelligence community will put into action their thugs and rabble rousers and create as much public disruption as possible. “Suicide of the West,” subtitled “An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism,” is a classic work of political science, now fifty years old.
This chapter discusses the claim that radical right parties are typically led and supported by men, and explores various aspects of gender bias as they relate to radical right parties and support for . It gives hope to those who feel too weak or insignificant.
Furthermore, the literary features and incredible development of the character of Gideon make this story not only a joy to read but also exciting to preach and teach!
The current paper will record a literary analysis of 1 Samuel an unelected body concerning the electorate. However, what has become significantly interesting in new analysis is that their electorate patterns are becoming increasingly similar across countries despite electoral success (Hainsworth, ).
Although one cannot stereotype the extreme right electorate, the trends over time and across countries can suggest who are most likely to vote for them.