Region of mountains, glaciers, forests, and rivers.
Plot summary[ edit ] The novel is based on the fictional "Everhard Manuscript" written by Avis Everhard which she hid and which was subsequently found centuries later. In addition, this novel has an introduction and series of often lengthy footnotes written from the perspective of scholar Anthony Meredith.
Meredith writes from around AD or B. Jack London writes at two levels, often having Meredith condescendingly correcting the errors of Everhard yet, at the same time, exposing the often incomplete understanding of this distant future perspective. Meredith's introduction also acts as a deliberate " spoiler " the term did not yet exist at the time of writing.
Before ever getting a chance to get to know Avis and Ernest, how they fell in love or how Avis became politically involved, the reader is already told that all their struggles and hopes would end in total failure and repression, and that both of them would be summarily executed.
This gives all that follows the air of a foreordained tragedy. The book begins with the acquaintance of Avis Cunningham, a daughter of a renowned physicist with the socialist Ernest Evergard. At first, Avis does not agree with Ernest in that the whole contemporary social system is based on exploitation of labour.
However, she proceeds to investigate the conditions the workers live in and those terrible conditions make her change her mind and accept Ernest's worldview.
Similarly, Bishop Morehouse does not initially believe in the horrors described by Ernest but then becomes convinced in their truth and is confined to a madhouse because of his new views. The Manuscript itself covers the years through in which the Oligarchy or "Iron Heel" arose in the United States.
In Asia, Japan conquered East Asia and created its own empire, India gained independence, and Europe became socialist. Canada, Mexico, and Cuba formed their own Oligarchies and were aligned with the U.
In North America, the Oligarchy maintains power for three centuries until the Revolution succeeds and ushers in the Brotherhood of Man.
During the years of the novel, the First Revolt is described and preparations for the Second Revolt are discussed. From the perspective of Everhard, the imminent Second Revolt is sure to succeed but from Meredith's frame storythe reader knows that Ernest Everhard's hopes would go unfulfilled until centuries after his death.
The Oligarchy is the largest monopoly of trusts or robber barons who manage to squeeze out the middle class by bankrupting most small to mid-sized business as well as reducing all farmers to effective serfdom. This Oligarchy maintains power through a "labor caste " and the Mercenaries.
Laborers in essential industries like steel and rail are elevated and given decent wages, housing, and education. Indeed, the tragic turn in the novel and Jack London's core warning to his contemporaries is the treachery of these favored unions which break with the other unions and side with the Oligarchy.
Further, a second, military caste is formed: The Mercenaries are officially the army of the US but are in fact in the employ of the Oligarchs.
Asgard is the name of a fictional wonder-city, a city constructed by the Oligarchy to be admired and appreciated as well as lived in. Thousands of proletarians live in terrible poverty there, and are used whenever a public work needs to be completed, such as the building of a levee or a canal.
The Manuscript is Everhard's autobiography as she tells of: By telling the story of Avis Everhard, the novel is essentially an adventurous tale heavily strewn with social commentary of an alternative future from a perspective. However, the future perspective of the scholar Meredith deepens the tragic plight of Everhard and her revolutionary comrades.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Jack London ambitiously predicted a breakdown of the US republic starting a few years pastbut various events have caused his predicted future to diverge from actual history.
Most crucially, though London placed quite accurately the time when international tensions will reach their peak in "The Iron Heel", in actual historyhe like many others at the time predicted that when this moment came, labor solidarity would prevent a war that would include the US, Germany and other nations.
Further, London assumed that the Socialist Party would become a mass party in the United States, strong enough to have a realistic chance of winning national elections and gaining power, while remaining a revolutionary party still committed to the dismantling of capitalism.
The whole book is based on Marx's view that capitalism is inherently unsustainable. This would precipitate a brutal counter-reaction, with capitalists preserving their power by discarding democracy and instituting a brutal repressive regime.
|Important Quotations Explained||Buck must learn this essential law in order to survive in the treacherous Northland. After being savagely beaten with a club by the man in the red sweater, Buck is exposed for the first time to the brutal relationship between man and dog.|
Although this exact scenario never came to pass in the US, where the Socialist Party remained small and marginal, events closely followed London's script elsewhere; for example, in Chile inwhere the government of socialist president Salvador Allende was overthrown by a CIA-backed coup led by General Augusto Pinochet.
This prompted later publishers of London's book to use a cover illustration depicting a poster of Allende being ground beneath the heel of a boot[ citation needed ].
The idea of a strong and militant mass Socialist Party emerging in the US was linked by London with his prediction that the middle class would shrink as monopolistic trusts crushed labor and small- to mid-sized businesses.Dr.
Lee’s areas of research interest include design and analysis of clinical trials, survival analysis, longitudinal data analysis, statistical computation/graphics, statistical methods for determining drug interaction in combination studies, and cancer chemoprevention.
The Call of the Wild is a short adventure novel by Jack London published in and set in Yukon, Canada, during the s Klondike Gold Rush, when strong sled dogs were in high demand. The central character of the novel is a dog named Buck.
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