South Korea began to organize a police constabulary reserve in In December the Department of National Defense was established.
These essays raise questions about the origin, replication, and entrenchment of health disparities; the ways that race and gender shape and are shaped by health policy; and the inseparable connection between health justice and health advocacy.
Selected from a competitive group of submissions, these pieces offer new perspectives on the multiple meanings of health, space, and the public in the US and Global South. Courtesy of Southern Spaces, October 6, Global patterns of development over the past two decades have meant that many of the health risks that affected the US South in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries plague the Global South in the twenty-first.
Yellow fevermalariahookwormpellagraand industrial accidents shape life in the developing world. Public health scholarship builds on the work of scholars in environmental history, medical humanities, and ethics to analyze the cultural and economic factors in health policy and medical care.
This history reveals heroes and villains, courageous activists, recalcitrant bureaucrats, and corporate profiteers.
Health care workers run the gamut from eugenicists to environmentalists, from misogynists and racists to strong proponents of social justice who understand health care as a fundamental human right. Across generations, the major social determinants of public health remain—class, race, gender, and geography—while the particulars have shifted dramatically.
Outrages over food safety and the false claims of patent medicines became public causes in the early twentieth century.
Successful campaigns of immunization eradicated infectious diseases such as smallpoxtuberculosismeaslesand mumps. More recently, the work of public health includes: Climate change generates public health threats that include natural disasters and the creation of warm, virus-nurturing environments that promote chikungunyadengue feverebolaand zika —diseases that call to mind the yellow fever, choleraand malaria that plagued southern geographies in earlier centuries.
Yellow fever, " the scourge of the South ," panicked urban populations, discouraged immigration, and disrupted commerce. The yellow fever epidemic of — that swept across the Gulf States and up the Mississippi claimed 16, lives.
Malaria, with its enervating effects, played a role in shaping the popular image of the "lazy southerner. Widespread poverty for generations following Reconstruction exposed hundreds of thousands of poor, rural southerners to hookworm infection and pellagra.
By the end of the nineteenth century a few southern states had established boards of health. Byevery southern state had established a state health agency, identified the insect carriers of malaria and yellow fever, and taken up hookworm and pellagra as challenges.
Funding for health reform began to increase after World War I.
New Deal spending doubled the number of county health departments, from in to in Nonetheless, the South continued to lead the nation in the number of stillbirths and maternity and infant death rates, as well as in the incidence of tuberculosis, venereal disease, malaria, hookworm, hypertension, and heart disease.
Racial segregation commanded a costly dual system of health care that resulted in devastating disparities in health care for southern African Americans, including inadequate facilities, too few physicians, dramatically higher rates of disease, and a significantly lower life expectancy.
Only during and after World War II did the South experience an unprecedented improvement in public health.The history of Zika virus The rise in the spread of Zika virus has been accompanied by a rise in cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
First identified in Uganda in in monkeys, Zika was later identified in humans in Heretofore unknown in the US, Dengue outbreaks have now occurred in the United States.
Leprosy, a scourge of Biblical days, is caused by a bacillus agent and is now know as Hansen's Disease.
In the 40 years prior to , there were only total cases of leprosy in the US. History as Scourge - History as Scourge How truly the wisest of men used to assert that the souls of despots, if revealed, would show wounds and mutilations – weals left on the spirit, like lash-marks on a body, by cruelty, lust, and malevolence.
As the land border became more tightly controlled, cocaine would be shipped via the Caribbean and the Bahamas and end up in Miami.
The Contra rebels were in full flow in Nicaragua, and reportedly the CIA turned a blind eye to the rebels exporting significant amounts of cocaine for funding.
AP US History study guide by kyteacher includes questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Britain gained all of French Canada & all territory south of Canada & east of the Mississippi River.
Established the 31st parallel as the border between the United States and Spanish West Florida. Washington's Farewell Address (). The US South's reputation for poor health seems tied to national discourses of underdevelopment and backwardness. Yellow fever, "the scourge of the South," panicked urban populations, discouraged immigration, and disrupted commerce.