Description[ edit ] Feral children lack the basic social skills that are normally learned in the process of enculturation. For example, they may be unable to learn to use a toilethave trouble learning to walk upright after walking on fours all their lives, or display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them. They often seem mentally impaired and have almost insurmountable trouble learning a human language. One of the best-documented cases has supposedly been that of sisters Amala and Kamaladescribed by Reverend J.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: Abstract Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans.
Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited.
Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice.
Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation.
The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour.
Description. The course on Child Behaviour looks into the reasons behind the way children behave in particular ways and why they do so. It tries to understand and analyses the events and triggers that lead to certain patterns of behaviour in children. The study of animal behavior is a cornerstone of experimental psychology, shedding light on how animals interact with each other and with their environments, and why they behave the way they do. Redirected aggression occurs when a dog is aroused by or displays aggression toward a person or animal, and someone else interferes. Expand to read more Redirected aggression is a lot like frustration-elicited aggression with the exception that the dog need not be frustrated.
From Animal and child behaviour through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour.
What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours.
From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours.
The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of animal abuse in their law enforcement, prevention, and treatment decisions.
Introduction Antisocial behaviours including aggression and violence, are disruptive, not only to the individual but also to society and the community [ 1 ]. A history of antisocial behaviour is predictive of a large range of problems during adulthood including criminal behaviour, work failure, and troubled marriages.
At the more extreme end of the antisocial behaviours continuum is violence which has been reported to be one of the leading public health problems worldwide with over 1.
Over the past decade, it has also become increasingly clear that aggressive behaviours mostly occur within the context of other antisocial behaviours including lying, stealing, destruction of property, burglary, sexual assault and other violent crimes [ 3 ].
Given the co-occurrence of aggressive behaviour, most notably physical aggression with other forms of antisocial behaviour, the focus of research has broadened from the traditional focus on aggressive behaviour to one in which aggression is viewed within the broader framework of antisocial behaviours [ 4 ].
Antisocial Behaviour and Aggression Loeber [ 5 ] has defined antisocial behaviour as that which causes mental or physical harm, property loss, or damage to others.
Human aggression has been defined as behaviour performed by a person the aggressor with the deliberate intention of harming another person the victim who is believed by the aggressor to be motivated to avoid that harm. It is also noteworthy that violence is conceptualized as a particularly extreme sub-type of aggression e.
In relation to the multidimensional nature of aggressive behaviour, it can be considered along dimensions including i the degree of hostile versus agitated affect that is present; ii the underlying motive along the dimension of the degree to which the primary or ultimate goal is to cause harm to the victim versus the instrumental goal of the perpetrator deriving a profit or reward through the aggressive behaviour, and iii the degree to which the likely consequences were considered, reflecting whether the aggressive behaviour was premeditated thoughtful, deliberate, slow and instrumental or impulsive automatic, fast, affect laden.
Anderson and Huesmann [ 8 ] have also stated that regardless of where the aggressive behaviour falls on the above dimensions, the intention to harm is still a necessary goal.
This last point is important within the present context since if we are to draw useful conceptual parallels between human aggression and harm perpetrated against animals, given the broad-ranging utilitarian attitudes toward non-human animals e.
Consistent with human aggression definitions, this definition of animal abuse and most others e. Following a detailed consideration of a number of definitions of animal abuse, including Ascione's [ 9 ], Dadds, Turner, and McAloon [ 11 ] have noted that most definitions comprise a behavioural dimension including both acts of omission e.
Thus an important dimension of animal abuse is indication that the behaviour occurred purposely, that is, with deliberateness and without ignorance.
The requirement of deliberate intention to cause harm excludes behaviours that cause pain, suffering or distress to animals as a consequence of other behaviours such as, for example, veterinary procedures or practices that are part of animal husbandry e.
Thus, animal abuse can be defined as behaviour performed by an individual with the deliberate intention of causing harm i. Included in this definition are both physical harm and psychological harm. As per the literature on human aggression, animal abuse at the more extreme end of the aggression dimension e.
Indeed, more consideration needs to be given to the severity of acts of animal abuse than is currently the case. In this regard, considering the classification of the underlying motivations of animal abuse [ 10 ] is likely to be most useful. Animal Abuse Motivations A number of authors [ 111213 ] have emphasised the importance of determining the motivations underlying animal abuse in order to better understand the behaviour, and particularly its relationship with human violence and aggression.
To this end, Kellert and Felthous [ 10 ] proposed nine categories of motivations including i attempts to control an animal e. Such a motivation is accompanied by the belief that the particular animal is not worthy of moral consideration, iv the expression of aggression through an animal e.
A primary goal expressed within this motivation was to derive pleasure from causing the suffering. This motive was explained by Kellert and Felthous as sometimes being related to a desire to exercise power and control over an animal as a way of compensating for feelings of weakness or vulnerability.
Relating to the displacement of aggression viiifrustrated aggression is typically involved.
Many of the aggressive participants in Kellert and Felthous' study reported being physically abused as children. Participants' self-reports were supportive of displaced aggression, typically involving authority figures who they reported hating or fearing.
Their abuse of animals reportedly served as a displaced expression of the violence they experienced. Indeed, displaced aggression has been described to be a robust phenomenon in the human aggression literature [ 1415 ]. With regard to acting out of prejudice against a particular species or breed vthis motivation can be best understood with reference to Bandura's [ 1617 ] moral disengagement theory.
According to Bandura, certain mechanisms can explain why and when even people who otherwise have normal or even high moral standards sometimes behave in ways that could be considered reprehensible.A feral child (also called wild child) she could not speak, would jump at the door and bark as caretakers left, and had "clear attributes of an animal".
Sujit’s behaviour has improved, but he will never learn to speak and he remains profoundly disabled.
Significance of Animal Behavior Research Two of our journals Animal Behaviour and Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology rank in the top six behavioral science AND zoological journals in terms of impact as measured by the Science Citation Index. Maier and Seligman on learned helplessness has had a similar effect on child development and.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
A feral child (also called wild child) is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, where they have little or no experience of human care, behavior or human language.
There are several confirmed cases and other speculative ones. Normal Child Behavior. How do I know if my child's behavior is normal?
Parents often have difficulty telling the difference between variations in normal behavior and true behavioral problems.
In reality, the difference between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear; usually it . Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: What is normal and what is not?
Most people can recall a time where, as a child, you were curious about sexual development. It’s not uncommon for young children to engage in “doctor” play or ask questions about genital differences of the opposite sex. Touching animal genitals: Sexual behaviors.