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Abstract This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure.
The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5, men and 2, women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector.
The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women.
In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant quantitative demandswhose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support.
With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.
Introduction Excess stress is the cause of considerable problems in developed countries. Much of this stress has been linked to work and employment [ 1 ], and the latter takes up a large part of our lives.
The Agency predicts that the number of people suffering stress-related conditions caused or made worse by work is likely to increase. Factors such as downsizing and outsourcing, the increasing need for flexibility in functions and skills, the increasing number of temporary contracts, the growing job insecurity, and poor work-life balance are imposing increasingly severe demands on workers, which is leading to greater tensions.
Occupational stress can transcend the workplace and also endanger the general wellbeing of the worker. A large number of studies link occupational stress to other health problems such as musculoskeletal disorders [ 345 ], cardiovascular disease [ 67 ], anxiety and depression [ 8910 ], burnout [ 11121314 ], and insomnia [ 1516 ].
Many of the factors that generate stress—or stressors—are psycho-social in nature. Moreover, it is generally accepted in the literature that people react differently to exposure to these factors. In other words, stress-related symptoms or illnesses can vary between individuals.
Thus it is also important to consider gender when studying stress-related problems. Women and men are exposed to different working environments and different types of demands and tensions, even when they work in the same sector and profession.
Men are more likely to occupy higher positions.
Women also tend to remain in the same job longer than men, so their exposure to any existing risks is longer-lasting. Consulting workers and their participation is an important factor in occupational health and safety, but women tend to work in jobs where union representation is lower.
This is on top of their daily paid work and generates even more pressure, particularly when they cannot possibly reconcile work and family life [ 25 ]. A number of studies focusing on either stressors or their manifestations analyse the influence of gender on the levels of job strain in the workplace, but the situation in the workplace as discussed above seems to make it necessary to deepen the analysis.
In the current study we apply the JDCS model on a large sample of workers to investigate whether men and women differ significantly in their perceptions of Demands, Control and Support in the workplace and in how these factors affect the levels of job stress.
To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as a manifestation of job stress. We also examine whether the socio-demographic variables age and sector of activity affect job stress differently in function of the gender.
Gender and Occupational Stress Research shows that occupational stress can affect both men and women. Nevertheless, women may be disproportionately exposed to stressors.
Women have greater exposure to monotonous tasks than men, are less likely to do jobs involving problem solving or learning, are less likely to be able to choose when to take a break in their work, and are more likely to be interrupted with unexpected tasks [ 262728 ].
The literature review for this study suggests that the genders do not differ for all manifestations of occupational stress. For example, researchers find no differences between women and men in terms of the influence of stress factors on perceived role conflicts [ 29 ], personal accomplishment [ 30 ], or self-esteem or well-being [ 31 ].
The relation between burnout and gender aspects in general is unclear [ 32 ]: This lack of consensus may be because researchers have shown that burnout is closely linked to the profession, and this is what determines its intensity.
Research has found significant differences between men and women with regards harmful job strain or its effects on other symptomatic variables.Purpose – To identify the specific sources of occupational stress and the professional burnout experienced by teachers working in Greek primary and secondary schools.
A special emphasis is . Purpose – To identify the specific sources of occupational stress and the professional burnout experienced by teachers working in Greek primary and secondary schools.
|Gender Difference in Occupational Stress - rutadeltambor.com||Result of the survey analyzed by using independent t-test.|
|Gender differences in stress and coping styles - ScienceDirect||Result of the survey analyzed by using independent t-test. Female middle level mangers reported sources of stress as mistakes at the job, less recognition from superior, lack of career and achievement and lack of personal level development at the job than male middle level managers.|
|The OSI-R is a concise measure of three dimensions of occupational adjustment: Demographic variables, such as age, gender, ethnicity, marital and parental status, primary work-setting, years of experience, stress related treatment, and years licensed were examined within the three dimensions of stress, strain, and coping.|
|Yogesh Jogsan 1 Occupational stress, ways of coping and anxiety Runing head:|
|Volume 37, Issue 7NovemberPages Gender differences in stress and coping styles Author links open overlay panel M. PilarMatud Show more https:|
A special emphasis is given to gender and age differences. Design/methodology/approach – A cross‐sectional design was used.
Two self‐report measures were administered to a sample of primary and secondary school. In this study, we examine gender differences in occupational stress, taking into consideration the role of marital status, age and education. Results from a sample of professionals suggest that women experience higher levels of occupational stress than men.
Variables that had significant differences on the levels of stress, strain, and coping were gender, primary work setting, number of work settings, maximum .
Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high‐school teachers in Greece Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high‐school teachers in Greece.
Gender Difference in Occupational Stress and Coping Strategies Among Middle with problems in a logical and unemotional manner, and they cope stress with organizing works than females.
Key Words: Gender, Occupational Stress, Coping Strategies and 49 per cent are female (N = 53). The mean age of respondents is 33 with range from 27 to