Sasson report on Illegal outposts - Israel report that documented the fact that numerous "outposts" were created in the occupied territories without government approval and in blatant violation of the law.
Members of the Achaemenid royal bodyguard, from a bas-relief at Persepolis The Islamic revolution in brought a sudden end to the rule of the Pahlavi dynasty, which for fifty years had been identified with the attempt to modernize and Westernize Iran. The Revolution replaced the monarchy with an Islamic republic and a secular state with a quasi-theocracy.
There were continuities across the watershed of the Revolution, however; bureaucratic structure and behavior, attitudes toward authority and individual rights, and the arbitrary use of power remained much the same.
The Revolution ended a pattern of monarchical rule that, untilhad been an almost uninterrupted feature of Iranian government for nearly years. The tradition of monarchy itself is even older.
In the sixth century B. It had an absolute monarch, centralized rule, a highly developed system of administration, aspirations of world rule, and a culture that was uniquely Iranian even as it borrowed, absorbed, and transformed elements from other cultures and civilizations.
The impact of the Islamic conquest in the seventh century was profound. It introduced a new religion and a new social and legal system. The Iranian heartland became part of a world empire whose center was not in Iran. Nevertheless, historians have found striking continuities in Iranian social structure, administration, and culture.
Iranians contributed significantly to all aspects of Islamic civilization; in many ways they helped shape the new order. By the ninth century, there was a revival of the Persian Farsi language and of a literature that was uniquely Iranian but was enriched by Arabic and Islamic influences.
The breakup of the Islamic empire led, in Iran as in other parts of the Islamic world, to the establishment of local dynasties. Iran, like the rest of the Middle East, was affected by the rise to power of the Seljuk Turks and then by the destruction wrought first by the Mongols and then by Timur, also called Tamerlane Timur the Lame.
With the rise of the SafavidsIran was reconstituted as a territorial state within borders not very different from those prevailing today. Shia see Glossary Islam became the state religion, and monarchy once again became a central institution. Persian became unquestionably the language of administration and high culture.
Although historians no longer assert that under the Safavids Iran emerged as a nation-state in the modern sense of the term, nevertheless by the seventeenth century the sense of Iranian identity and Iran as a state within roughly demarcated borders was more pronounced.
The Qajars attempted to revive the Safavid Empire and in many ways patterned their administration after that of the Safavids.
But the Qajars lacked the claims to religious legitimacy available to the Safavids; they failed to establish strong central control; and they faced an external threat from technically, militarily, and economically superior European powers, primarily Russia and Britain. Foreign interference in Iran, Qajar misrule, and new ideas on government led in to protests and eventually to the Constitutional Revolutionwhich, at least on paper, limited royal absolutism, created in Iran a constitutional monarchy, and recognized the people as a source of legitimacy.
The rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi, who as Reza Khan seized power in and established a new dynasty inreflected the failure of the constitutional experiment. His early actions also reflected the aspirations of educated Iranians to create a state that was strong, centralized, free of foreign interference, economically developed, and sharing those characteristics thought to distinguish the more advanced states of Europe from the countries of the East.
This work of modernization and industrialization, expansion of education, and economic development was continued by the second Pahlavi monarch, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.
He made impressive progress in expanding employment and economic and educational opportunities, in building up strong central government and a strong military, in limiting foreign influence, and in giving Iran an influential role in regional affairs.The Iranian Revolution was a populist, nationalist and Shi'a Islamic revolution that replaced a secular dictatorial monarchy with a theocracy based on "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists" (or velayat-e faqi.)..
Its causes – why the last Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was overthrown and why he was replaced by an Islamic Republic – are the subject of historical debate.
The flag of the United States during the American Revolution. The history of the United States is what happened in the past in the United States, The Middle East became very important in American foreign policy after several Americans were kidnapped in Iran in MOVIES (HISTORICAL FILMS) IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER (UNDER CONSTRUCTION -- I'm watching and writing about these movies as fast as I can, but it is going to take awhile.).
Middle East Trivia Quiz. Introduction.
- UN Security Council Resolution - Further sanctions against Iran for nuclear enrichment and non-cooperation with IAEA inspectors. Transcript of The Islamic Revolution and Its Affect on the Iranian Society.
Religious leaders fearful of loosing traditional authority Causes and Historical Background Khomeini and the Revolution Hostage Crisis and Iran/Iraq War Cultural impact on society and Priesthood portrayed United States as evil oppressor of Islam. The dynasty that the revolution overthrew – the Pahlavi dynasty – was known for its autocracy, its focus on modernization and Westernization and for its disregard for religious and democratic.