History of sociology The field of sociology itself—and sociological theory by extension—is relatively new. Both date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. The drastic social changes of that period, such as industrializationurbanizationand the rise of democratic states caused particularly Western thinkers to become aware of society. The oldest sociological theories deal with broad historical processes relating to these changes.
Both these theories aim to describe how society is structured, and what contributes to that make up. This document will look at the structural theories in relation to crime. It aims to show how two sociological theories can be used to analyse crime and give differing views.
This is called a macro theory as it takes an overall view of society. The basis of this theory is how the structure of society impacts on human behaviour. The two perspectives that will be looked at are Functionalist and Marxist they both agree that society shapes the individual and not the individual that shapes society Crime and Deviance is part of our society.
To clarify the meaning of both words in the context of this essay; crime is an unlawful criminal act, whereas deviance is a behaviour which is not a social norm breaking the social rules. Throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century many researchers into the phenomena of crime regarded crime as a social science in which modern scientific methods could be applied to.
The label of a science suggested that crime and its causes could be measured, determined and therefore a cure could be discovered.
The Functionalist sociologist that will be looked at is Emile Durkheim, he was a French sociologist. The Marxist sociologist is Karl Marx, he was a German sociologist. A Functionalist study of society would look at Institutional arrangements and relationships and these would form the building blocks of society.
The way in which institutions relate to each other determines the structure and basic character of any society. People are born into an existing system of institutional arrangements.
Society is very much alive and is often compared to the workings of a human body. When all institutions work together there is a healthy society likewise when all the organs in the human body are working well then you have a healthy body.
When one of the institutions fails, then society can fall apart. The conscience of society is expressed as a total sum of the beliefs and values of people who belong to that society.
The collective conscience represents the will of society as a whole. Laws develop out of the collective conscience of a society — they are the norms of behaviour that are applied formally to everyone in society.
A Functionalist would argue that an amount of crime is good whereas too much crime is bad and could bring about societal collapse bringing further anarchy and confusion.
It was Emile Durkheim who began the study that gave birth to Functionalist approaches to crime. When a serious crime is committed and thus becomes public knowledge through media attention, Functionalists believe that there are bonds within society that are strengthened and a sense of horror is felt.Sociological theories are statements of how and why particular facts about the social world are related.
They range in scope from concise descriptions of a single social process to paradigms for analysis and rutadeltambor.com sociological theories explain aspects of the social world and enable prediction about future events, while others function as broad perspectives which guide further.
Theories of Crime: A Reader [Claire M. Renzetti, Daniel J. Curran] on rutadeltambor.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Designed as a stand-alone or for use with Curran & Renzetti's Theories of Crime.
The Sociological Imagination and Freedom from Feelings of Entrapment - The sociological imagination is the “quality of mind” (Mills, 4) that enables individuals to look outside their private sphere of consciousness and identify the structures and institutions in society that influence or .
Making Sense of Abstract Theories.
Sociological theories are the core and underlying strength of the discipline. They guide researchers in their studies. Contemporary sociological theories Sorokin, Pitirim Aleksandrovich, From rutadeltambor.com Producer's Note About Internet Archive Daisy Books.
Humour (British English) or humor (American English; see spelling differences) is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide rutadeltambor.com term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours (Latin: humor, "body fluid"), controlled human health and emotion.